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Surface Mount Technology - Outline

  • Dedication
    Foreword
    Preface
    Acknowledgments
    About the Author

    Part One - Introduction to Surface Mounting
    Chapter 1 Introduction to Surface Mount Technology
    1.0 Introduction
    1.1 Types of Surface Mounting
    1.2 Benefits of Surface Mounting
    1.3 SMT Equipment Requiring Major Capital Investment
    1.3.1 Pick-and-Place Equipment
    1.3.2 Solder Paste Screen Printer
    1.3.3 Curing/Baking Oven
    1.3.4 Reflow Soldering Equipment
    1.3.5 Cleaning
    1.3.6 Wave Soldering Equipment
    1.3.7 Repair and Inspection Equipment
    1.4 When to Use Surface Mounting
    1.5 Technical Issues in Surface Mounting
    1.6 Trends in Surface Mounting
    1.7 The Future
    1.7.1 Chip-and-Wire Technology
    1.7.2 Tape-Automated Bonding (TAB)
    1.7.3 Flip Chip or Controlled Collapse Bonding
    1.7.4 Multichip Module
    1.8 Summary
    References

    Chapter 2 Implementing SMT In-House and at Subcontractors
    2.0 Introduction
    2.1 Setting the Implementation Strategy
    2.2 Building the SMT Infrastructure
    2.2.1 Developing the Internal SMT Infrastructure
    2.2.1.1 Writing the Plan
    2.2.1.2 Management Review
    2.2.1.3 Hands-On Experience
    2.2.1.4 Process Selection
    2.2.1.5 Training
    2.2.2 Influencing External SMT Infrastructure
    2.3 Setting In-House Manufacturing Strategy
    2.4 Selection of an Outside Assembly House
    2.4.1 Reasons for Not Using Suppliers
    2.4.2 Reasons for Using Suppliers
    2.4.3 Evaluation and Qualification of Suppliers
    2.4.4 Stages of Supplier Qualification
    2.4.4.1 Preliminary Survey
    2.4.4.2 Evaluation Status
    2.4.4.3 Conditional Qualification Status
    2.4.4.4 Approved Qualification Status
    2.4.5 Supplier Rating
    2.4.6 Questionnaires for Rating of Suppliers
    2.4.6.1 Business Questions
    2.4.6.2 Technology Questions
    2.4.6.3 Manufacturing Questions
    2.4.6.4 Quality Assurance Questions
    2.4.7 Supplier Management or Partnership
    2.5 Managing the Risk: Pilot to Production
    2.6 Summary

    Part Two - Designing with Surface Mounting

    Chapter 3 Surface Mount Components
    3.0 Introduction
    3.1 Surface Mount Component Characteristics
    3.2 Passive Surface Mount Components
    3.2.1 Surface Mount Discrete Resistors
    3.2.2 Surface Mount Resistor Networks
    3.2.3 Ceramic Capacitors
    3.2.4 Tantalum Capacitors
    3.2.5 Tubular Passive Components
    3.3 Active Components: Ceramic Packages
    3.3.1 Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers
    3.3.2 Ceramic Leaded Chip Carriers (Preleaded and Postleaded)
    3.4 Active Components: Plastic Packages
    3.4.1 Small Outline Transistors
    3.4.2 Small Outline Integrated Circuits (SOICs and SOPs)
    3.4.3 Plastic Leaded Chip Carriers
    3.4.4 Small Outline J Packages
    3.4.5 Fine Pitch Packages
    3.5 Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs)
    3.5.1 Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA)
    3.5.2 Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA)
    3.5.3 Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA)
    3.5.4 Tape Ball Grid Array (TBGA)
    3.6 Chip Scale Packaging
    3.7 Major Issues in Components
    3.7.1 Lead Coplanarity
    3.7.2 Lead Configuration
    3.7.2.1 Gull Wing
    3.7.2.2 Balls (in BGA)
    3.7.2.3 J Lead
    3.7.2.4 Butt or I Lead
    3.7.3 Standardization
    3.8 Component Procurement Guidelines
    3.9 Summary

    Chapter 4 Substrates for Surface Mounting
    4.0 Introduction
    4.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
    4.2 X, Y, and Z Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
    4.3 Selection of Substrate Material
    4.3.1 CTE Compatibility Considerations in Substrate Selection
    4.3.2 Process Considerations in Substrate Selection
    4.4 Ceramic Substrates
    4.4.1 Porcelainized Steel Substrates
    4.5 Constraining Core Substrates
    4.5.1 Low CTE Metal Core Substrate
    4.5.2 Graphite Epoxy Constraining Core Substrates
    4.6 Compliant Layer Substrates
    4.7 Glass Epoxy Substrates
    4.7.1 Types of Glass Epoxy Substrate
    4.7.2 Operating Temperatures for Glass Epoxy Boards
    4.7.3 Fabrication of Glass Epoxy Substrates
    4.8 Plating Processes
    4.8.1 Copper Plating
    4.8.2 Gold Plating
    4.8.3 Nickel Plating
    4.8.4 Lead-Tin Solder Plating
    4.9 Alternative Coatings for Board Surfaces
    4.10 Solder Mask Selection
    4.10.1 Wet versus Dry Film Solder Masks
    4.10.2 Photoimageable Solder Masks
    4.11 Via Hole Cracking Problems in Substrates
    4.12 Summary

    Chapter 5 Surface Mount Design Considerations
    5.0 Introduction
    5.1 System Design Considerations
    5.2 Package Drivers
    5.2.1 PGA Drivers
    5.2.2 Fine Pitch Drivers
    5.2.3 Ball Grid Array (BGA) Drivers
    5.2.4 Issues in Component Packaging
    5.3 Real Estate Considerations
    5.4 Manufacturing Considerations
    5.5 Cost Considerations
    5.5.1 Printed Circuit Board Cost
    5.5.2 Component Cost
    5.5.3 Assembly Cost
    5.6 Thermal Considerations
    5.7 Package Reliability Considerations
    5.7.1 Package Cracking Mechanism
    5.7.2 Solutions to Package Cracking
    5.7.3 Moisture Sensitivity Classification for Package Cracking
    5.8 Solder Joint Reliability Considerations
    5.8.1 Solder Joint Reliability Tests
    5.9 Interconnect Considerations
    5.10 CAD Layout Considerations
    5.11 Summary

    Chapter 6 Surface Mount Land Pattern Design
    6.0 Introduction
    6.1 General Considerations for Land Pattern Design
    6.2 Land Patterns for Passive Components
    6.2.1 Land Pattern Design for Rectangular Passive Components
    6.2.2 Land Pattern Design for Tantalum Capacitors
    6.3 Land Patterns for Cylindrical Passive (MELF) Devices
    6.4 Land Patterns for Transistors
    6.5 Land Patterns for Plastic Leaded Chip Carriers
    6.6 Land Patterns for Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers
    6.7 Land Patterns for Small Outline Integrated Circuits and R-Packs
    6.8 Land Patterns for SOJ (Memory) Packages
    6.9 Land Patterns for DIP (Butt Mount) Packages
    6.10 Land Patterns for Fine Pitch, Gull Wing Packages
    6.11 Land Pattern Design for Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs)
    6.12 Land Pattern Design for TAB
    6.13 Land Patterns for Solder Paste and Solder Mask Screens
    6.14 Summary

    Chapter 7 Design for Manufacturability, Testing, and Repair
    7.0 Introduction
    7.1 DFM Organizational Structure
    7.2 General Design Considerations
    7.3 Component Selection Considerations for Manufacturability
    7.4 Soldering Considerations
    7.5 Component Orientation Considerations
    7.6 Interpackage Spacing Considerations
    7.6.1 Assumptions in Interpackage Spacing Requirements
    7.6.2 Interpackage Spacing Requirements
    7.7 Via Hole Considerations
    7.8 Solder Mask Considerations
    7.9 Repairability Considerations
    7.10 Cleanliness Considerations
    7.11 Testability Considerations
    7.11.1 Guidelines for ATE Testing
    7.12 Summary

    Part Three - Manufacturing with Surface Mounting

    Chapter 8 Adhesive and Its Application
    8.0 Introduction
    8.1 Ideal Adhesive for Surface Mounting
    8.1.1 Precure Properties
    8.1.2 Cure Properties
    8.1.3 Postcure Properties
    8.2 General Classification of Adhesives
    8.3 Adhesives for Surface Mounting
    8.3.1 Epoxy Adhesives
    8.3.2 Acrylic Adhesives
    8.3.3 Other Adhesives for Surface Mounting
    8.4 Conductive Adhesives for Surface Mounting
    8.4.1 Electrically Conductive Adhesives
    8.4.1.1 Anisotropic Electrically Conductive Adhesive
    8.4.2 Thermally Conductive Adhesive
    8.5 Adhesive Application Methods
    8.5.1 Stencil Printing
    8.5.2 Pin Transfer
    8.5.3 Syringing
    8.6 Curing of Adhesives
    8.6.1 Thermal Cure
    8.6.1.1 Thermal Cure Profile and Bond Strength
    8.6.1.2 Adhesive Cure Profile and Flux Entrapment
    8.6.2 UV/Thermal Cure
    8.7 Evaluation of Adhesives with Differential Scanning Calorimetry
    8.7.1 Basic Principles of DSC Analysis
    8.7.2 DSC Characterization of an Epoxy Adhesive
    8.7.3 DSC Characterization of an Acrylic Adhesive
    8.8 Summary

    Chapter 9 Solder Paste and Its Application
    9.0 Introduction
    9.1 Solder Paste Properties
    9.1.1 Metal Composition
    9.1.2 Metal Content
    9.1.3 Particle Size and Shape
    9.1.4 Flux Activators and Wetting Action
    9.1.5 Solvent and Void Formation
    9.1.6 Rheological Properties
    9.1.6.1 Viscosity
    9.1.6.2 Slump
    9.1.6.3 Working Life and Tackiness
    9.1.7 Solder Balls
    9.1.8 Printability
    9.2 Solder Paste Printing Equipment
    9.2.1 Selecting a Printer
    9.3 Solder Paste Printing Processes
    9.3.1 Paste Printer Setup
    9.3.2 Screen Printing
    9.3.3 Stencil Printing
    9.3.4 Screen Printing versus Stencil Printing
    9.3.5 Dispensing
    9.4 Paste Printing Defects
    9.5 Paste Printing Variables
    9.5.1 Solder Paste Viscosity
    9.5.2 Print Thickness and Snap-Off
    9.5.3 Squeegee Wear, Pressure, Hardness, Type, and Orientation
    9.5.4 Print Speed
    9.5.5 Mesh/Stencil Tension
    9.5.6 Board Warpage
    9.5.7 Etched, Laser Cut, and Electroformed Stencils
    9.5.7.1 Chemically Etched Stencils
    9.5.7.2 Laser Cut Stencils
    9.5.7.3 Electroformed Stencils
    9.6 Printing for Different Types of Components
    9.6.1 Printing for Ball Grid Arrays
    9.6.2 Printing for Fine Pitch and Ultra Fine Pitch
    9.6.3 Printing for Through Hole in a Mixed Assembly
    9.7 Summary

    Chapter 10 Metallurgy of Soldering and Solderability
    10.0 Introduction
    10.1 Phase Diagrams
    10.2 Metallization Leaching in Passive Surface Mount Components
    10.3 Solder Alloys and Their Properties
    10.4 Lead-Free Solder
    10.4.1 Lead Replacement Elements
    10.4.2 Lead-Free Solders and Their Properties
    10.5 Solderability
    10.5.1 Wetting
    10.5.2 Nonwetting
    10.5.3 Dewetting
    10.6 Various Approaches for Ensuring Solderability
    10.7 Solderability Test Methods and Requirements
    10.7.1 General Solderability Test Requirements
    10.7.1.1 Steam Aging Requirements
    10.7.1.2 Flux and Solder Requirements
    10.7.2 Dip and Look Test
    10.7.3 Wetting Balance Test
    10.7.4 Globule Test
    10.8 Effect of Substrate Surface Finish on Solderability
    10.9 Effect of Component Lead or Termination Finish on Solderability
    10.9.1 Effect of Ni-Pd Lead Finish on Solderability
    10.10 Summary

    Chapter 11 Component Placement
    11.0 Introduction
    11.1 Manual Placement of Parts
    11.2 Automated Placement of Parts
    11.3 Selection Criteria for Placement Equipment
    11.3.1 Maximum Substrate Size Handling Capacity
    11.3.2 Maximum Feeder Input or Slot Capacity
    11.3.3 Types and Sizes of Components
    11.3.4 Placement Rate and Flexibility
    11.3.5 Placement Accuracy/Repeatability
    11.3.6 Vision Capability
    11.3.7 Adhesive Dispensing Capability
    11.3.8 Equipment Software Program
    11.3.9 Service, Support, and Training
    11.3.10 Other Important Selection Criteria
    11.4 Selection of Feeders for Placement Equipment
    11.4.1 Tape and Reel Feeders
    11.4.2 Bulk Feeders
    11.4.3 Tube or Stick Feeders
    11.4.4 Waffle Packs
    11.5 Available Placement Equipment
    11.5.1 Equipment with High Throughput
    11.5.2 Equipment with High Flexibility
    11.5.3 Equipment with High Flexibility and Throughput
    11.5.4 Equipment with Low Cost and Throughput but High Flexibility
    11.6 Summary

    Chapter 12 Soldering of Surface Mounted Components
    12.0 Introduction
    12.1 Wave Soldering
    12.1.1 Design and Process Variables in Wave Soldering
    12.1.2 Process and Equipment Variables in Wave Soldering
    12.2 Developing a Wave Solder Profile
    12.3 Types of Wave Soldering for Surface Mounting
    12.3.1 Dual-Wave Soldering
    12.3.2 Vibrating Wave Soldering
    12.3.3 Modified Wave Soldering
    12.4 Wave Soldering in an Inert Environment
    12.5 Single-Step Soldering of Mixed Assemblies
    12.6 Single-Step Soldering of Double-Sided SMT Assemblies
    12.7 Vapor Phase Soldering
    12.7.1 The Heat Transfer Mechanism in Vapor Phase Soldering
    12.7.2 Solder Opens (Wicking)
    12.8 Infrared Reflow Soldering
    12.8.1 Heat Transfer Mechanism in IR Dominant Systems
    12.8.2 Heat Transfer Mechanism in Convection Dominant Systems
    12.8.3 Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Convection/IR Systems
    12.8.4 Pros and Cons of Various IR Systems
    12.9 IR Reflow Soldering in Nitrogen
    12.10 Reflow Solder Profile Development
    12.10.1 Preheat Zone
    12.10.2 Soak Zone
    12.10.3 Reflow Zone
    12.10.4 Cooling Zone
    12.11 Common Reflow Defects
    12.11.1 Tombstoning and Part Movement
    12.11.2 Thermal Shock on Components
    12.11.3 Solder Mask Discoloration
    12.12 Laser Reflow Soldering
    12.13 Hot Bar Soldering
    12.14 Hot Belt Reflow Soldering
    12.15 Selecting the Appropriate Soldering Process and Equipment
    12.16 Summary

    Chapter 13 Flux and Cleaning
    13.0 Introduction
    13.1 Concerns in Surface Mount Cleaning
    13.2 The Function of Flux
    13.3 Considerations in Flux Selection
    13.4 Flux Classification
    13.4.1 Inorganic Fluxes
    13.4.2 Organic Acid Fluxes
    13.4.3 Rosin Fluxes
    13.4.4 Low Residue or No-Clean Fluxes and Solder Pastes
    13.4.4.1 Concerns About No-Clean Flux
    13.5 Contaminants and Their Effects
    13.5.1 Particulate Contaminants
    13.5.2 Nonpolar Contaminants
    13.5.3 Polar Contaminants
    13.6 Major Considerations in the Selection of Cleaning Materials
    13.6.1 Environmental Considerations
    13.6.2 Other Considerations in Selecting Cleaning Materials
    13.7 Cleaning Processes and Equipment
    13.7.1 Organic Solvents (CFC Alternatives) and Cleaning Equipment
    13.7.1.1 Batch Equipment for Organic Solvents
    13.7.2 Semi-Aqueous Solvents and Cleaning Equipment
    13.7.2.1 Semi-Aqueous Cleaning Equipment
    13.7.3 Aqueous Cleaning Processes and Equipment
    13.7.3.1 Deionization of Water for Cleaning
    13.7.3.2 Aqueous Cleaning Equipment
    13.8 Cleanliness Test Methods and Requirements
    13.8.1 Visual Examination
    13.8.2 Solvent Extraction
    13.8.3 Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR)
    13.8.3.1 SIR Measurement Test Conditions
    13.8.3.2 Application of the SIR Test
    13.9 Designing for Cleaning
    13.10 Summary

    Chapter 14 Quality Control, Inspection Repair, and Testing
    14.0 Introduction
    14.1 Statistical Quality Control
    14.2 Application of SQC: A Case History
    14.2.1 Implementing Statistical Process Control
    14.3 Defects Related to Materials and Process
    14.3.1 Substrate-Related Defects
    14.3.2 Component-Related Defects
    14.3.3 Adhesive-Related Defects
    14.3.4 Defects Related to Solder Paste
    14.3.5 Process-Related Defects
    14.3.6 Design-Related Defects
    14.4 Solder Joint Quality Requirements
    14.4.1 Solder Joint Requirements for Rectangular Components
    14.4.2 Solder Joint Requirements for Cylindrical Components
    14.4.3 Solder Joint Requirements for Gull Wing Components
    14.4.4 Solder Joint Requirements for J-Lead Components
    14.4.5 Solder Joint Requirements for Butt Lead Components
    14.4.6 Solder Joint Requirements for LCCCs
    14.4.7 Generic Solder Joint Requirements
    14.5 Solder Joint Inspection
    14.5.1 Visual Inspection
    14.5.2 Automated Inspection
    14.5.2.1 Automated Laser Inspection
    14.5.2.2 Transmission XRay and Scanned Beam Laminography Inspection
    14.6 Repair Equipment and Processes
    14.6.1 Repair Requirements
    14.6.2 Soldering Irons for Surface Mount Repair
    14.6.3 Hot Air Systems for Surface Mount Repair
    14.6.4 BGA Repair
    14.6.5 Rework Profiles
    14.7 Assembly Testing
    14.7.1 Fixtures for ATE Testing
    14.7.2 Issues in ATE Testing
    14.8 ISO 9000 Quality Standards and Certification
    14.8.1 ISO 9000 Certification
    14.8.2 Meeting ISO 9000 Standards
    14.9 Summary

    APPENDIX A
    SURFACE MOUNT STANDARDS

    APPENDIX B
    DETAILED QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EVALUATING SMT EQUIPMENT: PICK-AND-PLACE (APPENDIX B1), SCREEN PRINTER (APPENDIX B2), AND REFLOW OVEN (APPENDIX B3)

    APPENDIX C
    GLOSSARY

    INDEXIntroduction to Surface Mount Technology.

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